[SRC] PedroM
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Description rapide : Un système d'exploitation complet, quasiment compatible avec AMS
Auteur de l'archive : PpHd
Calculatrices concernées : TI-89 TI-92+ TI-V200 TI-89Ti
Hardware concernés : HW1 HW2 HW3
ROMs (AMS) supportés : PedroM
Langage de programmation utilisé : ASM C
Description Complète : Title: PedroM
Version: 0.81
Platform(s): TI-92+, TI-89, V200 and TI-89 Titanium
Author: Patrick Pelissier (PpHd)
Web Site: or
Release Date: 2005/10/28


PedroM - Copyright (C) 2003, 2004, 2005 Patrick Pelissier
PreOS - Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 Patrick Pelissier
Side - Copyright (c) 2002, 2005 Clement Vasseur.
MD5 - Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2002 Aladdin Enterprises.
ExtGraph - Copyright (C) 2001-2002 Thomas Nussbaumer
TIB Install - Copyright (c) 2000-2004 Julien Muchembled.

This program is free software ; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option)
any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
this program; if not, write to the
Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
MA 02111-1307 USA

PedroM may also use non-GPL extra code which are distribute under their own

Unpack routines and PPG files Copyright (C) 2001-2002 Pasi 'Albert' Ojala & Thomas Nussbaumer
STDLIB Copyright their respective authors (Non commercial use). See preos for details.

NOTE! This copyright does *not* cover user programs that use PedroM
services by various system calls - this is merely considered normal use
of PedroM, and does *not* fall under the heading of "derived work".


PedroM is a complete new Operating System (OS) for Ti-68k calculators. It doesn't use any code from Texas Instruments OS, Advanced Math Software (AMS). The goal was to create an OS useable on real calcs, which can run safely 95% of the assembly programs designed for AMS 1.0x. So that, I was obbliged to rewrite many romcalls of the original OS. The rewritten romcalls are often faster, but always smaller: only 192K of Flash Rom are reserved for the system (64K for the boot, 8+8K reserved by the hardware, 48K+64K for PedroM itself). As a consequence, there is plenty of Flash memory available (228 Kbytes of RAM and 1900 Kbytes of Archive) and there is no Computer Algebra System (CAS). Of course, this OS sets the hardware protection (in RAM and in ROM) off. But all the assembly programs use either self modifing code, or data in code segment. So only the PedroM programs would be able to be executed in ROM. AMS Flash Application won't never be supported.

The Ti link protocol is not complete: you can't send a Product Code, neither receive/send backup. Other things should work.

PedroM has the latest PreOS core as a built-in, so you don't need to install a kernel extender. It can also run natively PPG programs (See for more infos about PPG programs). In conclusion, you can run:
- Nostub Programs.
- Kernel Programs (version 2, 3, 4 & 5) -See "Kernel History" in PreOS.txt.
- PPG Programs (If enable).
- Pack Archive Programs.
Kernel v1 programs can be converted using 'ck1tok2' program to kernel v2 so you can even use kernel v1 with PedroM (Sorbo Quest! Lovely.) but this feature is limited for the HW1 calculators. If you try to run such programs without converting them, they may fail or report that a library is missing: convert them.
There is an emulator of old calculators (92+ and 89) for V200 and Titanium so that you can run kernel programs which are not designed for such calculator. However, this emulator doesn't support nostub programs: you must find other programs to convert them (For example, ghostbuster).

Many romcalls have been rewritten (>400). Many program work. TSR programs won't work since EV-hook doesn't work (In fact, EV_hook works but there is no AMS like application installed, so it does nothing since there is no event). PedroM is detected as AMS 1.01 by nostub programs but kernel programs will detect AMS 1.48.
'stdlib' is also a built-in library (If enable)

II.The command line prompt: the shell

Contrary to AMS, PedroM looks like a unix shell. You can receive any files (sent throught the link port) in this shell, just like in the AMS Home application. The provided shell is far from perfect, but a "sh" compliant shell increases the OS size too much.


You enter a command in the prompt, and you validate it by pressing ENTER.
There is an history of the last used commands.
Press Up/Down to select a previous command (Up to 10 previous commands).
Select current character of the prompt.
Go to the beginning or the end of the prompt.
Auto completion of the current command.
It searchs in the internal commands, in the folders and in the files of the current path. If there are more than one command which can complete the line, it puts as much char as possible. It no char can be put, it displays a menu with all the possible commands (except if you are under very low memory condition).
Paste the memorised command (See Environnement variables).
Abort current program.
[2ND] + [APPS]:
Restart another Shell Command (Switch current task).
[DIAMOND] + F1-F8:
Go to background process #0 to #7.
Erase the current input, or if there is no current input, clear the screen.


They are many built-in commands:

+ 'install product code': Install a signed Product Code using the Boot code (ie reinstall AMS). This command isn't fully displayed in the help. This command should be safe.
+ 'install tib' : Install an unsigned Product Code. This command isn't fully displayed in the help. It uses an internal function to reinstall a new tib. This command is the only way to update PedroM.
+ 'install format' : Bad name for such a command (It is too avoid auto-completion). Nevertheless this command erases all the archived files of your calculator and does a reset. The original version of stdlib is reinstalled too.

+ 'help' : display all the internal commands.
+ 'clear' : Clear the screen.
+ 'echo' : Display the given string.
Ex: echo "Hello world !"
+ 'more' : Display else stdin or the given file, stopping itself every 14 lines.
Ex: ls -l | more
+ 'cat' : Display the given files (in stdout). '-' is the stdin file.
Ex: echo Hello >toto
Ex: echo World |cat toto - toto

+ 'flags' : Set the internal flags of Pedrom.
Use: flags optionA=1 optionB=0 [...]
Options may be:
- AutoArc: The sent files are automaticly archived if set.
- OffSwitch: Instead of turning off the current running program, it switches and starts another Shell Command.
- GetKeySwitch: If you press [2nd]+[APPS] inside a program which uses the internal functions ngetchx/GKeyIn, it switches and starts another Shell Command.
- StatusError: The reported errors uses the Status Help instead of a dialog box.
+ 'clean' : Clean the system (Unrealloc Kernel files, delete Twin Files, and free all handles which are not in the VAT). Check if the system is not corrupted, and does a reset if it is. Erase all background process too!
+ 'reset' : Reset PedroM (Archive won't be lost).
+ 'mem' : Display the remaining memory.
+ 'hexdump' : Do a dump of the memory. Usefull for debugging.
Ex: hexdump 0x400000

+ 'cd' : Change the current directory.
Ex: cd toto
+ 'arc' : Archive a file (Put a file from RAM to Flash Rom).
Ex: arc sma
+ 'unarc' : Unarchive a file.
Ex: unarc sma
+ 'ls' : List the current directory. Options :
'-l' : to have some details.
'-h' : to see the 'home' directory.
+ 'mkdir' : Create a new directory.
Ex: mkdir toto
+ 'rmdir' : Delete a directory. All the files in the directory are deleted.
Ex: rmdir toto
+ 'rm' : Delete a file.
Ex: rm temp
+ 'rmarc' : Delete an archived file.
Ex: rmarc temp
+ 'mv' : Move/Rename a file (SrcName DestName).
Ex: mv tictex shell
+ 'cp' : Copy a file (Srcname DestName).
Ex: cp main\tictex system\shell
+ 'sendcalc' : Send a file to another calc. Works even with AMS calcs!
Ex: sendcalc tictex
+ 'getcalc' : Get a file from another calc. Works even with AMS calcs!
Ex: getcalc tictex
+ 'read' : Read from the keyboard (stdin) and put the chars in variables. [DEL] is supported even if it isn't displayed...
Ex: :>read x y z
Hello world !
Now x = "Hello", y = "world" and z = "!".
+ 'unppg' : Extract a PPG file and add the extracted program to the VAT.
Ex: unppg db92ppg db92

+ 'ps' : Display all the background processs. The current process is not listed. It displays the PID (The number to give to kill/go command), the size used by the system to save the process and its probable name.
+ 'kill' : Kill a background process, given its PID (See ps for PID).
Ex: kill 1
+ 'go' : Stops the current process and restore a background process.
Syntax: go [PID]
If you don't specify the PID, it will restore the latest process.

+ 'side' : Starts SIDE (Built-in application).
It is a text editor. Here are the keys :
[2nd]+[LEFT] : jump to beginning of line
[2nd]+[RIGHT] : jump to end of line
[<>]+[LEFT] : Next left word
[<>]+[RIGHT] : Next right word
[2nd]+[UP] : page up
[2nd]+[DOWN]: page down
[<>]+[UP]: jump to first line
[<>]+[DOWN]: jump to last line
[SHIFT] + arrow keys: select text
[CLEAR]: clear to end of line
[2nd]+[CHAR]: characters table
[APPS]: Display secondary screen (See config)
[ESC]: close file and prompt for a new one
[2nd]+[QUIT]: exit
[2nd]+[OFF] or [<>]+[ON]: power off
[<>]+[x] : cut
[<>]+[c](Ti-92+) OR [<>]+[y](Ti-89): copy
[<>]+[v](Ti-92+) OR [<>]+[z](Ti-89): paste
F1 - Build - save the file and launch the compiler.
F2 - Exec - save the file and executes the compiled program.
F3 - Goto - go to the given line
F4 - Find - prompt for a string to be searched for
F5 - Replace - prompt for a string to be replaced for
F6 - Config - open the config screen
F7 - About - show the about screen
And also [2nd]+[Switch] and [diamond]+F1-F8: See the shell keys for details.
-- Config --
Build: name of the program that runs with F1 (build) '!' is the text filename.
Exec: name of the program that runs with F2 (Exec) '!' is the text filename.
2nd text: name of the text file to open with APPS.
Auto insert closing brackets: Yes/No
Auto indent: insert spaces when [ENTER] is pressed
Key repeat delay and rate let you configure the cursor speed.

Wildcards '*' and '?' are supported for the extra arguments: use 'arc *lib' to archive all the libraries.
Variables are supported just like in Unix Script (But replacing vars may throw errors):
echo "${x[1]} ${x[2]}"
"ls -l"->ls
Redirection is supported just like in Unix Shell:
ls -l >dummy 2>error
mem >>dummy
ls -l | more
read x y <hello
Alias are supported too: all string variables in folder 'system' are alias.
"ls -l"->system\l


If you want to run a program (designed for PedroM or AMS), just enter its name, and press ENTER. It cans run ASM programs (_nostub, kernel or Pack Archive) directly. You don't need to install a kernel (By the way, no kernel can be installed!). It cans also run the PPG directly (It supports all the PPG formats natively). So you can delete the launcher. You don't need to write the braquets '(' and ')'.


Even if PedroM isn't designed to be a calculator, it would be quite annoying if you can't do any calcul with it. So you can enter a simple math calcul in the command line prompt, and it evaluates it:
-1452.3 ("ans - 1452.3")
For the moment, only + / * - -> exp ln are defined (and external fonctions).
As a consequence, you can call a program like with AMS: "shl()" works, but it returns a random float since it doesn't support the PedroM convention.

dim(LIST) returns the size of the list. dim(STRING) returns the size of the string.
getkey() pauses the system waiting for a key. It returns the Key code.
time() returns the current time (from the boot of the calc).
testd(string) returns true if string exists as a directory.
testf(string) returns true if string exists as a file.

NOTE(1): "tictex()" won't work since it doesn't create a twin entry.
NOTE(2): If an error arrived, some variables may be locked (ie can't be used). You can unlock them by calling 'clean'.
NOTE(3): Func arg '25*x->f(x)' is not yet supported.

D - Script:

A script is a text file which contains a list of commands to execute.
The first line must be " #!PedroM ". All lines which begins with # are comments. Other lines are commands, just like in the shell. The script arguments are stored in a created variable: system\args, which is a list var.
A special script is launched when PedroM starts: its name is 'system\start'.

A script supports also some extra commands which are not available from the shell:
+ exit: Exit from the script.
+ if/else/elif: Execute block if condition is true:
+ while: Execute block until condition is false:

This script language is not efficient at all.

E - System variables

Environnement variables are string variables stored in system folder.
They are mainly:
+ system\start : Script to execute when the system boots.
+ system\apd : Apd value (String Number). Set the current value for the Auto Power Down timer (in seconds). Valid values are from 10 to 1000 (Other values won't be accepted). Warning: It is a string!
+ system\path : Set the current PATH. If a file is not found inside the current (and if there isn't any given folder), it will search in the path. It is a list of strings.
+ system\home : Folder where to create initialisation files, save files, etc. It is a string.
+ system\args : List of the arguments given to a script. It is a list of strings. It is a local file to a script (ie it is different for each script).
+ system\fkey[n]: String to put if F[n] is pressed.
Ex: '"stdlib"->system\fkey1' : When you press F1, "stdlib" is pushed instead.
Ex: '"ls -l;"->system\fkey2' : With F2, "ls -l" is executed. Putting ';' as the last char means execute the command after putting it.
+ system\temp : Folder where to create temp files. It is a string.


I don't want to explain how to send a non-certified TIB to a Ti-92+/Ti-89. It may be be dangerous, and you may dommage your calculator: unexperiment users may do dangerous things.
You can nevertheless test PedroM on VTi or tiemu: put the TIB files inside the emulator directory for VTI, or import them for TIEMU.
Nevertheless it has been reported to work fine on TI-92+ HW1 and 2, on Ti-89 HW1 and HW2, on V200 and on Ti-89 Titanium.

IV.Build PedroM

0. You need:
+ tigcc v0.95 or above (See ).
+ PedroM sources. (See ).
+ PreOS v1.0.5 or above. (See
+ A Unix like environnement (ie. it needs cygwin/mingw for Windows).

1. Build PedroM:
a. Extract Preos and PedroM archives.
b. Open a shell command.
c. Go to the PedroM source directory.
d. Build it:
where $(PREOS_DIRECTORY) is the directory where you have extracted PreOS.
Or if you prefer a pure GPL version:

V.Boot & Reset

In PedroM, there are 2 kinds of reset:
+ soft reset which doesn't destroy your RAM : 'Address Error', 'Protected Memory', ... do such kind of reset. I recommended highly to do a 'clean' command before continuing. PedroM can't do it itself because this command may crash the calculator.
+ hard reset : the RAM is totally reset. Only the archive files are kept.

If you press ON during the end of the booting process (between the black screen and the white screen), PedroM will do a hard reset which doesn't start the script 'start'. Do no kept ON pressed during the second reset, otherwise, it will do a 3rd reset, and so on.


Q: How can I send PedroM to my calc?
A: The only thing I will say is that you have to look for a program which can receive an unofficial TIB.
If you read this doc carrefully, you will find some usefull infos :)

Q: Why should I use PedroM instead of AMS?
A: For 3 main reasons:
+ PedroM is free software!
+ There is plenty memory free (Both Flash and RAM).
+ There are less dramatical bugs than AMS (ie you can't overpass the Hardware Protection by software.).

Q: Why should I use AMS instead of PedroM?
A: For 3 main reasons:
+ You still use your calculator for Math.
+ AMS is less buggy.
+ AMS is the reference: it should be compatible with all programs.

Q: Is there a Window Like environnement?
A: Some window'like environnements are being developped for PedroM.

Q: Some programs don't work under PedroM. A program tells me 'Romcall xxx not available'. What can I do?
A: Nothing. Just report me the program, and maybe I can fix it.

Q: Some programs crash under PedroM. What can I do?
A: Report me the program. If it is a kernel program, it is certainly a bug in PedroM. PedroM should be compatible with all kernel programs (on HW1, at least)... If you have a HW2, you may have some problems with GrayScales with old programs. TiGb can't be run because it uses a dirty hack to get a 70K page. There may be also some new problems with HW3.

Q: A program crashes, and I can't run it anymore.
Q: The calculator don't have any memory left.
A: Call 'clean' command. Then retry it. If it crashes again, it has been corrupted. Resend it to PedroM.

Q: I change the batteries, and PedroM resets.
A: Yes. I don't have written the code for avoiding this on HW2!

Q: I can't install unios/preos/doorsos/teos!
A: There is already a kernel in PedroM! You don't need to install a new one. Moreover kernels use many dirty hacks which are not compatible with PedroM.

Q: What is 'stdlib'?
A: Lock at PreOS documentation.

Q: Why don't you do a multi-tasking OS? Why not Linux?
A: I personnaly think that if you want to do a multi-tasking OS, you should have at least a MMU to protect the tasks. Ti-92+ doesn't have a MMU, so a single-tasting OS is more suitable. Install Prosit if you still want such a program. Moreover the RAM is too small to create a good multi-tasking OS.

Q: I send a file and it seems to work fine, but when I list the files, I can't see it.
A: Check if the file hasn't been added to another folder.

Q: Why a TIB and not a 9xu?
A: 9xu files have some secrets I don't know. I know the format of the TIB files enought to create a good TIB.

Q: I have a lot of problems with the Link!
A: Indeed, there are some remaining problems with the link protocol.
Try using another link program (like TILP or TI-GRAPH-LINK). The last version of TiGl does a lot of overchecking.

Q: Your completion algorithm is quite good, but I want to add my own words to the list.
A: You can do it by creating some dummy files in a dummy folder.
For example, your words are: toto, titi, tutu.
In the shell, enter this:
to create some dummy vars (You can archive them). Then, add dummy folder to the path:
:>setpath dummy [...]
When you press, [t] then [ON], you will have your own words in the list. Magic, no?

Q: What is PedRhum?
A: PedRhum is a modified version of PedroM by Extended. It allows you to use PedroM without replacing AMS (Just like running Linux from DOS), so you can test PedroM. It uses some dirty hacks so the bugs must be returned to Extended himself, who may forward me if needed.

Q: I want to run program 'mem', but it is also an internal command, and I can't run it.
A: Run it like this: main\mem or mem()

Q: Your program is awesome. I want to pay you for it.
A: No problem. Send donation to (PayPal Address).

VII.Special Thanks

- Johan <> for his precious hardware doc.
- Rusty Wagner <> for Vti emulator.
- Zeljko Juric <> for tigcclib.
- Julien Muchembled <> for his tools.
- Olivier Armand (ExtendeD) <> for checking (often!) my code.
- WORMHOLE <> for OpenOS.
- Fosco255 for his tests on V200.

- And a billions of thanks to all the beta testers!
Archive mise en ligne par : Sasume
Date de mise en ligne : 2/11/2005 à 14:53:42

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